Thought for the Day

"By three methods we may learn wisdom: First, by reflection, which is noblest; second, by imitation, which is easiest; and third by experience, which is the bitterest." - Confucius

Friday, February 24, 2017

GSSR Special Issue: What the New Administration Needs to Know About Terrorism and Counterterrorism



GSSR Special Issue: What the New Administration Needs to Know About Terrorism and Counterterrorism


GSSR Special Issue: What the New Administration Needs to Know About Terrorism and Counterterrorism
The Georgetown Security Studies Review is very proud to present a new special issue: “What the New Administration Needs to Know About Terrorism and Counterterrorism”. This issue contains articles and remarks from some of the world’s eminent scholars of terrorism and counterterrorism, who gathered at Georgetown University on 26-27 January, 2017 for a conference jointly hosted by Georgetown University’s Center for Security Studies and the Handa Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence of the University of St Andrews, Scotland.
The special issue is available for download here.
The GSSR would like to graciously thank all who made contributions to this important special issue!
Please direct all inquiries regarding this issue to the Georgetown Security Studies Review Editor-in-Chief at GSSR@georgetown.edu.

Tuesday, February 7, 2017

Academics and Practitioners Give Open Advice to President Trump on ‘Eradicating’ Terrorism

The video for all four panels and the two keynotes (Michael Vickers and Richard English) can be viewed here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCHPN6YFZQHs6VLbFJITxg6A

We intend to have the conference proceedings published in a special report of the Georgetown Security Studies Review by around the end of the month and I will of course forward that when it is published.

Conclusion:

There were several clear themes and suggestions for the new administration. Most panels emphasized a need to be aware of the global picture and the presence of multiple terrorist threats. The panelists stressed a need to understand the context of terrorist incidents and the value of striving for proportional responses to such incidents. Moreover, the importance of learning from other countries’ and regions’ experiences, particularly the EU, was a clear trend of the discussions. On a different note, a focus on the increased technological threat both in terms of cyber-attacks and the power of new media for recruitment and propaganda also permeated the conference. According to Professor Arsenault, “The recent conference helped to create new knowledge at the intersection of counterterrorism theory and practice,” a sentiment echoed by Richard English who remarked, “It focused on an utterly contemporary event but with an eye to historical depth and background; and it involved high-grade scholarship, but with an eye to policy seriousness.”


Academics and Practitioners Give Open Advice to President Trump on ‘Eradicating’ Terrorism


Academics and Practitioners Give Open Advice to President Trump on ‘Eradicating’ Terrorism
By: Antonia Ward, Reporter
Photo Credit: Georgetown University Center for Security Studies (CSS)
January 26th-27th witnessed a convergence of academics and practitioners from across the world descend upon Georgetown University to offer policy lessons and advice to the new administration of President Donald Trump on the pressing issue of terrorism and counterterrorism in a seminal conference co-hosted by Georgetown University and the University of St Andrews-Scotland, “What the New Administration Needs to Know About Terrorism and Counterterrorism.” Comprising four panels across two days and two keynote speeches, the conference engendered lively and thorough discussion driven by a number of seasoned experts. Academics from farther afield such as Jytte Klausen and Audrey Kurth Cronin sat alongside prominent scholars from both Georgetown and St. Andrews, two universities that have enjoyed close partnership since Professor Bruce Hoffman co-founded the Handa Centre at St. Andrews (CSTPV) with the late Professor Paul Wilkinson in 1994. Additionally, the conference welcomed pivotal practitioners including Gary Ermutlu of the UN and career US Intelligence Community public servants Paula Doyle and Paul Pillar.
The conference began with a light breakfast followed by a brief introduction by Bruce Hoffman. The first panel, ‘What Next? Global Trends and Threats,’ was moderated by Professor Richard English, Pro-Vice Chancellor of Queen’s University Belfast. Hoffman’s assessment focused upon the resilience of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), the danger of foreign fighters, and the prospect of al Qaeda absorbing ISIS and the weapons of mass destruction (WMD) threat, thoughts that were similarly echoed by CSTPV Director Tim Wilson. Hanin Ghaddar, editor of the Lebanon’s NOW news website, warned of the threat Iranian-backed Hezbollah poses to the United States and the group’s growing power and consolidation within Iraq and Syria. Sir David Veness, a former UN official and CSTPV professor, warned of the major gap between identifying threats and collective response, highlighting the issues of Russia and Aleppo, Lebanon and Turkey; Veness also discussed the social media threat, extremist recruitment, and the difficulty of combatting lone wolf terrorism.
Following a lunch break, the keynote speech from The Honorable Michael Vickers, former Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence, kicked off the afternoon. In his speech, Mr. Vickers identified four failed strategies that the new administration should take valuable lessons from: containment; regional catalysts for regime change; strategic myopia; and placing hope in unreliable international partners. Mr. Vickers focused upon the importance of building strong and lasting alliances, conducting aggressive and sustained counterterrorism campaigns, and utilizing covert action. In response to a question asking if drones create more terrorism than they remove and their fodder for terrorist propaganda, Mr. Vickers firmly advocated for their use citing them as “the most precise instrument in the history of warfare.”
The last panel of the day, ‘What Next? Regional Trends and Threats,’ was chaired by Colonel David Maxwell, Associate Director of the Center for Security Studies and the Security Studies Program. Terrorism scholar Daveed Gartenstein-Ross focused on the importance of understanding the organizational structures and histories of Al Qaeda and ISIS for any effective counterterrorism strategy. Dr. Christine Fair, professor at Georgetown University, highlighted the increasing threat emanating from Pakistan and the links between their intelligence agency ISI and ISIS. The last two panelists, Professors Jytte Klausen and Diego Muro of the University of St Andrews-Scotland focused on the threats posed by terrorists within Europe specifically, discussing the complex networks at work in Europe and the supply and demand nature of terrorism recruiting, an understanding of which are crucial to an effective counter-radicalization strategy on the continent.
Friday morning began with a panel on ‘Global Counterterrorism and Regional Structures.’ Gary Ermutlu of the UN discussed terrorism as a living system, thus making it predictable; according to Ermutlu, rather than simply targeting leadership, counterterrorism strategies ought to focus on critical training, logistics, weapons and IED programs, and counter-messaging. Mary Habeck of Johns Hopkins University and Audrey Kurth Cronin of American University further discussed Al Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) and ISIS, discussing the nature of the entity itself and tracing its roots back to the Iraqi government under Maliki. Fernando Reinares, professor at Georgetown University, focused on the EU, arguing that second and third generations of Muslim populations were the largest threat, subsequently making terrorism the EU’S number one threat; according to Reinares, effective conglomeration of databases was one of the most effective weapons against this threat.
The keynote speech from Richard English, formerly Director of St Andrew’s Handa Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence (CSTPV), focused upon five foundations of success for the new administration in countering terrorism: distinguishing between ‘terrorisms’ and ‘terrorism’; setting realistic goals; coordinated domestic and international responses; maintaining a credible message; and appropriately measuring the size of the threat and response. In particular, English emphasized President Trump’s goal of eradicating terrorism as mentioned in his inaugural speech, and highlighted that completely eradicating a centuries old phenomenon would be virtually impossible.
The final panel of the Conference was concerned with ‘Intelligence Challenges.’ Georgetown professor Elizabeth Arsenault made an impassioned speech regarding morality and firmly argued against the reopening of CIA black sites or using torture in interrogations. She also expressed concern about the relationship between the President and the Intelligence Community, warning of the dangers of politicization and the erosion of public faith. Professor Mark Currie focused upon the importance of learning from historical experiences and identifying to root source of grievances that fuel terrorism, emphasizing coordination and cooperation with partners as potential counterterrorism strategy. Paula Doyle spoke of the importance of resources, stressing that an increased threat from cyber-attacks should also take precedence in an age of digital counterterrorism. Paul Pillar’s discussion centered around honesty with the public about what counterterrorism can do and the inherent tension between security measures and the values of liberal democracy.
There were several clear themes and suggestions for the new administration. Most panels emphasized a need to be aware of the global picture and the presence of multiple terrorist threats. The panelists stressed a need to understand the context of terrorist incidents and the value of striving for proportional responses to such incidents. Moreover, the importance of learning from other countries’ and regions’ experiences, particularly the EU, was a clear trend of the discussions. On a different note, a focus on the increased technological threat both in terms of cyber-attacks and the power of new media for recruitment and propaganda also permeated the conference. According to Professor Arsenault, “The recent conference helped to create new knowledge at the intersection of counterterrorism theory and practice,” a sentiment echoed by Richard English who remarked, “It focused on an utterly contemporary event but with an eye to historical depth and background; and it involved high-grade scholarship, but with an eye to policy seriousness.”

Friday, February 3, 2017

What the New Administration needs to Know About Terrorism & Counterterrorism

I strongly recommend watching this video if you have 2 and 1/2 hours. The remarks by each speaker are very important and very much worth considering and the Q&A is excellent.   Also we will be publishing their remarks in a special edition of the Georgetown Security Studies Review hopefully by the end of the month. http://georgetownsecuritystudiesreview.org/

Moderator: Richard English – Queen’s University, Belfast
Speakers
Bruce Hoffman – Georgetown University
Hanin Ghaddar – The Washington Institute for Near East Policy
Sir David Veness – University of St. Andrews
Tim Wilson – University of St. Andrews

Panels 1 and 2 and the Key Note from Michael VIckers can be accessed here. https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCHPN6YFZQHs6VLbFJITxg6A

Moderator: David Maxwell – Georgetown University
Speakers:
Daveed Gartenstein-Ross – Georgetown University/ Foundation for the Defense of Democracies
Christine Fair – Georgetown University
Jytte Klausen – Brandeis University/ Woodrow Wilson Center
Diego Muro – University of St. Andrews

---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: YouTube <noreply@youtube.com>
Date: Thu, Feb 2, 2017 at 2:19 PM
Subject: Georgetown University Center for Security Studies just uploaded a video
To: David Maxwell <david.maxwell161@gmail.com>


Georgetown University Center for Security Studies has uploaded What the New Administration needs to Know About Terrorism & Counterterrorism – Panel 1
What the New Administration needs to Know About Terrorism & Counter...
Georgetown University Center for Security Studies
© 2017 YouTube, LLC 901 Cherry Ave, San Bruno, CA 94066
You were sent this email because you chose to receive updates from Georgetown University Center for Security Studies. If you don't want these updates anymore, you can unsubscribe here.

Sunday, January 29, 2017

Last 6 NSC organizational directives to compare to Trump's NSC Organization

For comparison here are the NSC organizations from Reagan through Obama (Trump's that was released yesterday is pasted below).  I have put President Reagan's first since it is radically different than all the rest and of course if from pre-Goldwater-Nichols.  Compared to Reagan's and Bush 41's NSCs Trump's is huge but so were Clinton's Bush 43's, and Obamas.

One other point.  There is controversy over the fact that the Assistant to the President and Chief Strategist, Steve Bannon is a member of the Principals Committee I think it is interesting to note that the only NSC document that had the word "strategy" in it was Bush 43's with a reference only to "defense strategy."  Trump's has the word strategist (referring to Bannon) but also no mention of strategy.  So the question is where is strategy made and where is strategy done! - Who will be "doing strategy" if not the NSC (but I suppose since the Chief Strategist is on the PC he will be the one responsible for doing strategy).

Since there is already controversy about the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff not being a member of the Principals Committee I think it is interesting to note the language of the Trump's NSC directive is nearly the same as Bush 43's NSC and similar to Clinton's NSC.

George H.W. Bush's Principal's committee was the smallest and had the CJCS as a member.

1. President Reagan's NSDD2- National Security Council structure: https://fas.org/irp/offdocs/nsdd/nsdd-2.pdf and NSDD-1 National Security Directives: https://fas.org/irp/offdocs/nsdd/nsdd-001.htm 

2.  Here is President Obama's Presidential Policy Directive 1 (PPD1): https://fas.org/irp/offdocs/ppd/ppd-1.pdf

Excerpt:
The National Security Advisor shall serve as Chair, and its regular members will be the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations, the Chief of Staff to the President, the Director of National Intelligence, and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Assistant to the President and Deputy National Security Advisor, the Deputy Secretary of State, the Counsel to the President, and the Assistant to the Vice President for National Security Affairs shall be invited to attend every meeting of the NSC/PC. When international economic issues are on the agenda, the NSC/PC's regular attendees will include the Secretary of Commerce, the United States Trade Representative, the Chair of the Council of Economic Advisers, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy, who, at the discretion of the National Security Advisor, may serve as chair. When homeland security or counter-terrorism related issues are on the agenda, the NSC/PC's regular attendees will include the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counter-Terrorism, who, at the discretion of the National Security Advisor, may serve as chair. When science and technology related issues are on the agenda, the NSC's regular attendees will include the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy. The heads of other executive departments' and agencies, along with additional senior officials, shall be invited as appropriate. 

3. Here is President George W. Bush's National Security Presidential Directive 1: Organization of the National Security Council System: https://fas.org/irp/offdocs/nspd/nspd-1.pdf

Excerpt ref the Principals committee (almost identical language in the Trump directive except that DNI replaced DCI because the DNI did not exist then)

The Director of Central Intelligence and th~ Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff shall attend where issues pertaining to their responsibilities and expertise are to be discussed. 

4. Here is President Clinton's PPD 1-NSC, Organizations of the National Security Council: https://fas.org/irp/offdocs/pdd/pdd-2.pdf

Excerpt:

The NSC/PC shall have as its members the Secretary of State (if unavailable, the Deputy Secretary of State or the designee of the Secretary of State); the Secretary of Defense (if unavailable, the Deputy Secretary of Defense or the designee of the Secretary of Defense); the u.s. Representative to the United Nations; the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (Chair); the Director of Central Intelligence; the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff; and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy, as appropriate. The Secretary of the Treasury, the Attorney General or other heads of departments or agencies shall be invited as needed. 

5. Here is George H.W. Bush's National Security Directive 1 (NSD1), Organization of the National Security Council System: https://bush41library.tamu.edu/files/nsd/nsd1.pdf 

Excerpt:

The NSC/PC shall have as its members the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (who shall serve as Chairman), the Director of the Central Intelligence, and the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, as well as the Chief of Staff to the President.  Participation of the Secretary of the Treasury and the Attorney General, will be governed by the guidelines of para A.. 2. Above.  In consultation  with the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense, the Assistant to the President may invite heads of other Executive departments and agencies, the special statutory advisors to the NSC, and other senior officials to attend meeting of the NSC/PC where appropriate in light of the issues to be discussed.
The White House
https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2017/01/28/presidential-memorandum-organization-national-security-council-and
Office of the Press Secretary
For Immediate Release

Presidential Memorandum Organization of the National Security Council and the Homeland Security Council

January 28, 2017
MEMORANDUM FOR THE VICE PRESIDENT
               THE SECRETARY OF STATE
               THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY
               THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE
               THE ATTORNEY GENERAL
               THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE
               THE SECRETARY OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
               THE SECRETARY OF TRANSPORTATION
               THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
               THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY
               THE SECRETARY OF HOMELAND SECURITY
               THE ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT AND CHIEF OF STAFF
               THE ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT AND CHIEF STRATEGIST
THE DIRECTOR OF THE OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET
               THE REPRESENTATIVE OF THE UNITED STATES TO THE
                  UNITED NATIONS  
               THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE
               THE CHAIR OF THE COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS
               THE CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE
                  FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM
               THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE
               THE DIRECTOR OF THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY
               THE CHAIRMAN OF THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF
               THE ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT FOR NATIONAL
                  SECURITY AFFAIRS
               THE ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT FOR HOMELAND
                  SECURITY AND COUNTERTERRORISM
               THE ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT FOR ECONOMIC
                  POLICY
               THE ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT
                  FOR TRADE AND MANUFACTURING POLICY
THE ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT FOR
                  INTRAGOVERNMENTAL AND TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVES
               THE Deputy Assistant to the President and
                  National Security Advisor to the Vice President
               THE COUNSEL TO THE PRESIDENT
               THE ADMINISTRATOR OF THE UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR
                  INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
               THE ADMINISTRATOR OF THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND
                  SPACE ADMINISTRATION
               THE CHAIRMAN OF THE NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION
               THE DIRECTOR OF THE FEDERAL BUREAU OF
                  INVESTIGATION   
               THE DIRECTOR OF THE OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND
                  TECHNOLOGY POLICY
               THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY
               THE CHAIRMAN OF THE PRESIDENT'S INTELLIGENCE
                  ADVISORY BOARD
               THE ADMINISTRATOR OF THE FEDERAL EMERGENCY
                  MANAGEMENT AGENCY
               THE ARCHIVIST OF THE UNITED STATES 
Organization of the National Security Council and the Homeland Security Council
As President, my highest priority is to ensure the safety and security of the American people.  In order to advise and assist me in executing this solemn responsibility, as well as to protect and advance the national interests of the United States at home and abroad, I hereby direct that my system for national security policy development and decision-making shall be organized as follows:
  1. The National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, and Supporting Staff
The National Security Act of 1947, as amended, established the National Security Council (NSC) to advise the President with respect to the integration of domestic, foreign, and military policies relating to the national security.  There is also a Homeland Security Council (HSC) -- established through Executive Order 13228 of October 8, 2001, and subsequently codified in the Homeland Security Act of 2002 -- that has the purpose of advising the President on matters pertaining to homeland security.  Each Council is also responsible for the effective coordination of the security-related activities and functions of the executive departments and agencies.
The security threats facing the United States in the 21st century transcend international boundaries.  Accordingly, the United States Government's decision-making structures and processes to address these challenges must remain equally adaptive and transformative.  Both Councils are statutory bodies that the President will continue to chair.  Invitations to participate in specific Council meetings shall be extended to those heads of executive departments and agencies, and other senior officials, who are needed to address the issue or issues under consideration.  When the President is absent from a meeting of either Council, the Vice President may preside at the President's direction.
The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (National Security Advisor) and the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism (Homeland Security Advisor) shall be responsible, as appropriate and at the President's direction, for determining the agenda for the NSC or HSC, respectively, ensuring that the necessary papers are prepared, and recording Council actions and Presidential decisions in a timely manner.  When international economic issues are on the agenda of the NSC, the National Security Advisor and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy shall perform these tasks in concert.
The NSC and HSC shall have as their regular attendees (both statutory and non-statutory) the President, the Vice President, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the National Security Advisor, the Homeland Security Advisor, and the Representative of the United States to the United Nations.  When international economic issues are on the agenda of the NSC, the NSC's regular attendees will include the Secretary of Commerce, the United States Trade Representative, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy.  The Director of National Intelligence and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, as statutory advisers to the NSC, shall also attend NSC meetings.  The Assistant to the President and Chief of Staff, the Assistant to the President and Chief Strategist, the Counsel to the President, the Deputy Counsel to the President for National Security Affairs, and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget are invited as attendees to any NSC meeting. 
In addition to the NSC and HSC, there is also a single NSC staff within the Executive Office of the President that serves both the NSC and HSC.  The staff is composed of regional, issue-focused, and functional directorates and headed by a single civilian Executive Secretary, pursuant to 50 U.S.C. 3021, who is also the Chief of Staff.  All policy and staff activity decisions will be transmitted to the Executive Secretary for appropriate distribution and awareness.  The purpose of the NSC staff is to advise me, the National Security Advisor, the Homeland Security Advisor, the NSC members, the HSC members, and others in the White House; to facilitate the implementation of Administration policy; and to help coordinate the national-security-related activities of the executive departments and agencies. 
  1. The Principals Committee
The Principals Committee (PC) shall continue to serve as the Cabinet-level senior interagency forum for considering policy issues that affect the national security interests of the United States.  The PC shall be convened and chaired by the National Security Advisor or the Homeland Security Advisor, as appropriate, in consultation with the appropriate attendees of the PC.  The Chair shall determine the agenda in consultation with the appropriate committee members, and the Executive Secretary shall ensure that necessary papers are prepared and that conclusions and decisions are communicated in a timely manner.  Invitations to participate in or attend a specific PC shall be extended at the discretion of the National Security Advisor and the Homeland Security Advisor, and may include those Cabinet-level heads of executive departments and agencies, and other senior officials, who are needed to address the issue under consideration.
The PC shall have as its regular attendees the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Assistant to the President and Chief of Staff, the Assistant to the President and Chief Strategist, the National Security Advisor, and the Homeland Security Advisor.  The Director of National Intelligence and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff shall attend where issues pertaining to their responsibilities and expertise are to be discussed.  The Counsel to the President, the Deputy Counsel to the President for National Security Affairs, and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget may attend all PC meetings. 
The Assistant to the President and Deputy National Security Advisor (Deputy National Security Advisor), the Deputy Assistant to the President and National Security Advisor to the Vice President, and the Executive Secretary (who shall serve as the Executive Secretary of the PC) shall attend all of the meetings of the PC, and the Representative of the United States to the United Nations and the Assistant to the President for Intragovernmental and Technology Initiatives may attend as appropriate.
When international economic issues are on the agenda of the PC, the Committee's regular attendees will include the Secretary of Commerce, the United States Trade Representative, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy (who shall serve as Chair for agenda items that principally pertain to international economics).\
  1. The Deputies Committee
The Deputies Committee (DC) shall continue to serve as the senior sub-Cabinet interagency forum for consideration of, and where appropriate, decision-making on, policy issues that affect the national security interests of the United States.  The DC shall be convened and chaired by the Deputy National Security Advisor or the Deputy Assistant to the President and Deputy Homeland Security Advisor (Deputy Homeland Security Advisor), as appropriate.  The Chair shall determine the agenda in consultation with the regular DC members, and the Executive Secretary shall ensure that necessary papers are prepared and that conclusions and decisions are communicated in a timely manner.  Invitations to participate in or attend a specific DC meeting shall be extended by the Chair to those at the Deputy or Under Secretary level of executive departments and agencies, and to other senior officials, who are needed to address the issue under consideration.
The DC shall have as its regular members the Deputy Secretary of State, the Deputy Secretary of the Treasury, the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the Deputy Attorney General, the Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security, the Deputy Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Deputy Director of National Intelligence, the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff,  the Deputy Assistant to the President and National Security Advisor to the Vice President, the Deputy National Security Advisor, the Deputy Homeland Security Advisor, and the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development.
The Executive Secretary shall attend the DC meetings.  The Deputy Counsel to the President for National Security Affairs may attend all DC meetings.  The relevant Deputy Assistant to the President for the specific regional and functional issue under consideration shall also be invited to attend.  Likewise, when and where appropriate, the Deputy Assistant to the President for Strategic Planning, the Deputy Assistant to the President for Strategic Communication, the Deputy Assistant to the President for International Economic Affairs, the Deputy Assistant to the President for Transnational Issues, and the Deputy Representative of the United States to the United Nations, shall also be invited to attend.  Other senior officials shall be invited where appropriate. 
The DC shall review and monitor the work of the interagency national security process, including the interagency groups established pursuant to section D below.  The DC shall help to ensure that issues brought before the NSC, HSC, and PC have been properly analyzed and prepared for decision.  The DC shall also focus significant attention on monitoring the implementation of policies and decisions and shall conduct periodic reviews of the Administration's major national security and foreign policy initiatives.  The DC is responsible for establishing Policy Coordination Committees (PCCs) and for providing objectives and clear guidance.
  1. Policy Coordination Committees
Management of the development and implementation of national security policies by multiple executive departments and agencies typically shall be accomplished by the PCCs, with participation primarily occurring at the Assistant Secretary level.  As the main day-to-day fora for interagency coordination of national security policies, the PCCs shall provide policy analysis for consideration by the more senior committees of the national security system and ensure timely responses to the President's decisions.
Regional and issue-related PCCs shall be established at the direction of the DC.  Members of the NSC staff (or National Economic Council staff, as appropriate) will chair the PCCs; the DC, at its discretion, may add co-chairs to any PCC.  The PCCs shall review and coordinate the implementation of Presidential decisions in their respective policy areas.  The Chair of each PCC, in consultation with the Executive Secretary, shall invite representatives of other executive departments and agencies to attend meetings of the PCC where appropriate.  The Chair of each PCC, with the agreement of the Executive Secretary, may establish subordinate working groups to assist that PCC in the performance of its duties.
An early meeting of the DC will be devoted to establishing the PCCs, determining their memberships, and providing them with mandates and strict guidance.  Until the DC has established otherwise, the existing system of Interagency Policy Committees shall continue.
  1. General
The President and the Vice President may attend any and all meetings of any entity established by or under this memorandum.
This document is part of a series of National Security Presidential Memoranda that shall replace both Presidential Policy Directives and Presidential Study Directives as the instrument for communicating relevant Presidential decisions.  This memorandum shall supersede all other existing Presidential guidance on the organization or support of the NSC and the HSC.  With regard to its application to economic matters, this document shall be interpreted in concert with any Executive Order governing the National Economic Council and with Presidential Memoranda signed hereafter that implement either this memorandum or that Executive Order.
The Secretary of Defense is hereby authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.
                              DONALD J. TRUMP